Research

Published Papers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   


    Economic History Review, 72(1) pp 233-259, February 2019.


Abstract: It is well-recognized that both improved nutrition and sanitation infrastructure are important contributors to mortality decline. However the relative importance of the two factors is difficult to quantify, since most studies are limited to testing the effects of specific sanitary improvements. This paper uses new historical data regarding total investment in urban infrastructure, measured using the outstanding loan stock, to estimate the extent to which the mortality decline in England and Wales between 1861 and 1900 can be attributed to government investment. Fixed effects regressions indicate that infrastructure investment explains approximately 22-25% of the decline in mortality between 1861 and 1900, once time trends are accounted for. Since these specifications may not fully account for the endogoneity between investment and mortality, I perform additional specifications using lagged investment as an instrument for current investment. These estimates suggest that government investment was the major contributor to mortality decline, explaining up to 60% of the reduction in total urban mortality between 1861 and 1900 and 88% between 1861 and 1890. Additional results indicate that investment in urban infrastructure led to declines in mortality from both waterborne and airborne diseases.

    Quarterly Journal of Political Science, Vol. 13: No. 4, pp 363-404 (2018).


Abstract: Several theories have argued that democratic reform will lead to higher government spending. However, these theories have generally focused on expenditure on redistribution rather than expenditure on public goods. This paper presents a model predicting that democratization leads to lower government expenditure on infrastructure if the median pre-reform voter is middle class. This prediction is tested using a new panel dataset of town council infrastructure spending and revenue in nineteenth-century Britain. An 1894 national reform implementing a system of ``one-household-one-vote'' and the secret ballot is used as the treatment event in a difference-in-difference analysis. The results show that democratic reform slowed the growth of town council investment in public goods, including water supply and other public infrastructure. In line with the theoretical prediction, this negative effect was strongest when democratic reform transferred power from the middle class to the poor.


Working Papers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     


Title:  
Extension of the Franchise and Government Expenditure on Public Goods: Evidence from Nineteenth-
Century England.
 
      


Abstract: 
Many theories of democratization suggest that extending the right to vote will lead to increased government expenditure (e.g. Meltzer and Richard, 1981; Lizzeri and Persico, 2004; Acemoglu and Robinson, 2000). However, these models frequently assume that government can engage in transfer expenditure, which is often not true for local governments. This paper presents a model in which government expenditure is limited to the provision of public goods. The model predicts that the poor and the rich desire lower public goods expenditure than the middle class: the rich because of the relatively high tax burden, and the poor because of a high marginal utility of consumption. Consequently extensions of the franchise to the poor can be associated with declines in government expenditure on public goods. This prediction is tested using a new dataset of local government financial accounts in England between 1867 and 1900, which captures government expenditure on key infrastructure projects that are not included in many studies of national democratic reform. The empirical analysis, by exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in the extent of the franchise, shows strong support for the theoretical prediction: expenditure increased following relatively small extensions of the franchise, but fell following extensions of the franchise beyond around 50% of the adult male population.

Title: Willingness-To-Pay and Willingness-To-Accept are Probably Less Correlated than You Think.
    with Mark Dean, Pietro Ortoleva, Erik Snowberg, and Colin Camerer.
         
    Working Paper (January 2019 - revisions requested at Econometrica)
    NBER Paper (May 2017)


Abstract: An enormous literature documents that willingness to pay (WTP) is less than willingness to accept (WTA) a monetary amount for an object, a phenomenon called the endowment effect. Using data from an incentivized survey of a representative sample of 3,000 U.S. adults, we add one (probably) surprising additional finding: WTA and WTP for a lottery are, at best, slightly correlated. Across all respondents, the correlation is slightly negative. A meta-study of published experiments with university students shows a correlation of around 0.15-0.2, consistent with the correlation in our data for high-IQ respondents. While poorly related to each other, WTA and WTP are closely related to different measures of risk aversion, and relatively stable across time. We show that the endowment effect is not related to individual-level measures of loss aversion, counter to Prospect Theory or Stochastic Reference Dependence.

Title: Econographics. 
    with Mark Dean, Pietro Ortoleva, Erik Snowberg, and Colin Camerer.

    Working Paper (January 2019 - revisions requested at Journal of Political Economy)
    NBER paper (August 2018)

Abstract: We study the pattern of correlations across a large number of behavioral regularities, with the goal of creating an empirical basis for more comprehensive theories of decision-making. We elicit 21 behaviors using an incentivized survey on a representative sample (n=1,000) of the U.S. population. Our data show a clear and relatively simple structure underlying the correlations between these measures. Using principal components analysis, we reduce the 21 variables to six components corresponding to clear clusters of high correlations. We examine the relationship between these components, cognitive ability, and demographics, and discuss the theoretical implications of the structure we uncover.

Title: Loss Attitudes in the U.S. Population: Evidence from Dynamically Optimized Sequential Experimentation (DOSE).
    with Erik Snowberg, Colin Camerer and Stephanie Wang 
    (previously "Dynamically Optimized Sequential Experimentation (DOSE)  for Estimating Economic Preference Parameters").
    
    Working Paper (January 2019)
    NBER Paper     (November 2018)

Abstract: We introduce DOSE—Dynamically Optimized Sequential Experimentation—and use it to estimate individual-level loss aversion in a representative sample of the U.S. population (N=2,000). DOSE elicitations are more accurate, more stable across time, and faster to administer than standard methods. We find that around 50% of the U.S. population is loss tolerant. This is counter to earlier findings, which mostly come from lab/student samples, that a strong majority of participants are loss averse. Loss attitudes are correlated with cognitive ability: loss aversion is more prevalent in people with high cognitive ability, and loss tolerance is more common in those with low cognitive ability. We also use DOSE to document facts about risk and time preferences, indicating a high potential for DOSE in future research.

Title:  Saving Face Through Norm Compliance and Obligation Avoidance       
    with Matthew Chao


Abstract: 
Many cultures emphasize that reciprocity is related to public image and “saving face,” such as by publicly demonstrating repayment of an obligation. Consistent with this, previous experiments have shown that some individuals act more selfishly when actions can be hidden and one’s image is not at risk. However, some individuals may instead prefer that their actions be observed; they may view hidden actions not as an opportunity to act selfishly, but rather as an obstacle to their desire to save face and display norm compliance. Study 1 tests this hypothesis by implementing a trust game where nature stochastically intervenes and allocates nothing in place of the second-mover’s choice. When nature intervenes, many second-movers choose to sacrifice both their own pay and their partner’s pay in order to truthfully signal that they attempted to allocate more. They therefore choose to signal norm-compliance even when it reduces pay for the very person they are indebted to. This need to signal norm compliance may increase the burden associated with obligation-inducing actions; Study 2 therefore tests whether individuals strategically avoid outcomes that activate norms and induce obligations. Players play two rounds of dictator games of increasing size, swapping roles in between. In treatments that allow it, many players in the first round reject allocations from their partner; they then act more selfishly as the dictator in the subsequent, larger round. These results emphasize the importance of image-based obligation avoidance and repayment as components of social preferences.


Work in Progress                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   


The Historical Development of Fiscal and Legal Capacity in England and Wales, with Tim Besley, Dan Bogart and Nuno Palma.

Financing Sanitation Infrastructure in late Nineteenth Century England and Wales.

The Impact of Inequality on Support for Franchise Extension: Evidence from Britain's Age of Reform.

Inequality and Welfare Expenditure: Evidence from the New Poor Law.

The Effect of the 1984/85 British Miners' Strikes on Social Cooperation: There's No Such Thing as Society Anymore?, with Samantha Myers.

Econographics and Political Behavior, with Colin Camerer, Pietro Ortoleva and Erik Snowberg.

Time Stability of Econographics, with Colin Camerer, Pietro Ortoleva and Erik Snowberg.


Other Publications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 


Book Review of The River Pollution Dilemma in Victorian England: Nuisance Law Versus Economic E.fficiency. By Leslie Rosenthal. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014. Australian Economic History Review, November 2015.

Book Review of The Rise of a Victorian Ironopolis: Middlesbrough and Regional Industrialization. By Minoru Yasumoto. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011. Published in the Journal of Economic History, September 2013.

An economic impact assessment of the CCPMO with Gavan Conlon and Patrice Muller (London: London Economics, 2008).


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Jonathan Chapman,
May 13, 2019, 10:46 PM
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Jonathan Chapman,
Jan 4, 2019, 3:21 PM
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Jonathan Chapman,
Jan 4, 2019, 3:28 PM
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Jonathan Chapman,
Dec 7, 2019, 7:31 AM
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Jonathan Chapman,
May 13, 2019, 10:51 PM
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Jonathan Chapman,
May 13, 2019, 10:44 PM